When a text is transcribed into braille, it is read as Unified English Braille (UEB). When mathematical material occurs within the UEB code, the non-technical material follows the UEB rules while the mathematical or technical material follows the Nemeth Code. Code switch indicators are used to indicate when text is to be read in UEB and when it is to be read in Nemeth Code.
|Opening Nemeth Code Indicator
|Nemeth Code Terminator
Rules for Nemeth Code Switch indicators
* Switch to Nemeth Code for mathematical or technical material.
* There must be one space between the indicator and the Nemeth Code that it is enclosing.
* No UEB symbols are used within the Nemeth Code switch indicators.
* No grade 2 contractions are used within the Nemeth Code switch indicators.
Find the sum of 56+32.
To find the volume of the box, multiply 5x5x5.
Is twenty-five times five the same as 125÷25?
* Avoid splitting up a math problem by bringing the whole math problem to the following line.
The Single Word Switch Indicator:
A single word switch indicator is used within the opening and terminating Nemeth Code switch indicators to signal a single word switch to UEB.
|Single Word Switch Indicator
When a single word occurs between two math expressions, the single word indicator is placed in front of the word to signal a switch to UEB. The single word switch to UEB is terminated by the next empty space and the phrase returns to Nemeth Code. This is to avoid too many code switch indicators from being used.
Are 3+3 and 2+2+2 the same?
What is 75% of 30?
Exception: When a single word is used as a mathematical operation (such as "and" for plus or "of" for multiply) within a mathematical expression, the single switch indicator is not used because the word is part of the expression rather than part of the narrative.
Calculate 75% of 30 = ____
When two words appear between two mathematical expressions, A single word switch indicator is not used. The Nemeth Code mode is terminated and reopened before the second mathematical expression.
2x2x2x2 is not 2x4.
* Notice that a single word switch indicator cannot be used. Nemeth mode is terminated and reopened.
When a series of math expressions or equations are listed with numbers or letters for identifiers, the entire series including the identifiers is transcribed in Nemeth to avoid switching in and out of Nemeth mode too often.
The opening Nemeth Code indicator can either be placed at the end of a previous line of text, or alone on a line immediately above the Nemeth series. The closing Nemeth Code indicator should be placed by itself on the line immediately after the series of problems.
Find the product.
1. 5x5 =
2. 5x6 =
3. 5x7 =
4. 5x8 =
When to Switch?
In 2014, the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) made the decision that when Nemeth Code is to be used for math and technical notation, the math and technical notation would be transcribed in Nemeth Code and surrounding text would be presented in UEB. Although this is the standard today, braille readers must consider that technical material written before this time was transcribed purely in Nemeth Code.
Also, careful consideration must be given to the extent that Nemeth Code switch indicators are used. Although the above is the prescribed method for embedding Nemeth Code into literary UEB code, the extent to which the code switches back and forth is at the discretion of the transcriber based on each individual situation.
There are three acceptable ways that technical material is transcribed into Nemeth Code:
1) Any math expression, equation, or symbol is transcribed in Nemeth Code. Any literary text surrounding the math expression, equation, or symbol is transcribed in UEB literary braille. Code switch indicators signal when to move in and out of Nemeth Code.
2) Math expressions, equations, and symbols are transcribed in Nemeth Code and surrounding literary text is transcribed in literary UEB braille, but single word switch indicators are not used. Words that appear between math expressions are transcribed according to Nemeth rules using uncontracted braille.
3) An entire block of text is set apart as Nemeth Code. As with the numbered list above, the opening Nemeth Code indicator can either be placed at the end of a previous line of text, or alone on the following line, and the closing Nemeth Code indicator is placed by itself on the line immediately following the block of Nemeth text. All Nemeth Code rules apply, including the use of uncontracted braille.
Important: Consider the nature of the problems and maintain consistency throughout the text.